August 27, 2016

The Proxima Hypothesis – Life Around Every Star
Proxima Centauri is a small red dwarf star located just 4.25 light years away. It is slightly closer to Earth than the famous binary pair of Alpha Centauri A and B.  There is an exciting new discovery of a planet around it called Proxima B with a mass of roughly 1.3 times that of Earth. It exists in a temperature zone that has possibility of liquid water on it. See this report:

Earliest posts of this blog have described how, if, temperatures are right for water to exist on a planet, life emerges automatically given enough time. Even the presence of water and oxygen is not necessary to begin with since cyano bacteria can create it before oxygen breathing life emerges. The mechanisms as proposed were an extension of the Panspermia hypothesis and it was dubbed as Pansemeria.

A new hypothesis is now proposed based largely  on an intuitive deduction that is not possible to delineate here,

“Every star in the universe in its prime has at least one planet that exists in a temperature zone to permit existence of liquid water and it is likely that life exists, albeit merely bacterial one, around every star in the universe during its prime.”

The prime of a star implies the stages after birth of a star and before it begins to die. The precise mechanism for this hypothesis is not  known but the proposal is that it is inherent in the very mechanism that creates stars. If this hypothesis be true, then discovery of Proxima B is not at all surprising and many more such shall be made with time. The presence of life however does not imply advanced life necessarily. It may be merely at the bacterial level or it may be advanced depending upon the life of the planet and its precise circumstances. The author has interests in both physical sciences as well spiritual ones and the intuitive part is a consequence of the latter.

April 08, 2016

From Birth to Bliss – The Human Journey

1. Light

Light is the original form of energy, others such as heat and mechanical energy are different forms of it. Matter is a concentrated form of energy. That is why such huge amounts are released in a nuclear explosion.  Creation begins with creation of photons, the fundamental particles of light. Basic elements of our universe are created out of these particles. Planets emerge by matter coalescing together in clumps. The early atmosphere of planets is gases such as hydrogen, methane and carbon dioxide.

As life begins to emerge, light is required by the most basic of life forms – Cyano Bacteria. With the help of light they produce oxygen along with water. The latter is produced by a combination of oxygen with other gases such as methane and hydrogen. Oxygen breathing life forms may then emerge. A plausible scenario for this creation and also how higher life forms evolve starting from single cell ones is described in the earliest posts of this blog while later posts describe the development of the earliest civilizations from a unique and original perspective not found in most other literature on the topic.

Light is required directly not only by basic life forms but also higher ones including humans for sustenance. Modern humans that live in crowded homes of crowded cities miss out on sunshine and good health. It is not just Vitamin D that is produced in human bodies with light but also a series of hormones required to function are triggered by the presence or absence of light.

All life forms once created require air, water and food to survive. It is necessary that humans do not destroy the environment that provides these basic needs. Modern humans have destroyed many trees and forests on the planet and face a disaster. However, if all active adult humans planted two trees a year, one of food, then climate change can be reversed and food shortages vanish. However, since all humans will not do it, governments can make up for them through afforestation programs. The climate shall be improved by planting more trees and eliminating pollution of air, water and land not through deals such as COP21. This latter is just some of the stuff that politicians, NGOs etc, release from time to time in order to appease other gullible humans often for their steaks and wine, at least as far as this author has been able to make out.

3. Thrive

Once a life form has found basics for survival it needs love to thrive and the absence of its opposite – violence. We all know that higher life forms such as humans require love and care of a mother soon after birth in order to survive but few realize that even bacteria need love. Bacteria have a simple unprotected genetic structure that can be easily destroyed by numerous toxins that exist in the environment, unless they develop immunity against them. Their simple structures enable bacteria to develop immunity rapidly. These immunity are then shared with other bacteria. Bacteria do not require sex to reproduce. They can multiply on their own by duplication but they require sex to share immunity. An early article on bacteria in this blog describes in more detail how this occurs.

Life requires a reasonable absence of violence in order to thrive. If humans begin to kill each other as they are doing in Syria right now, they can destroy each other rapidly. The foolish leader of Syria refusing to step aside and in order to control a rebellion began to destroy his cities with bombs instead of using his police and army to control the protest on ground as others do, like a small spoiled child who destroys his toys when angered. He has destroyed much of his country at the time of this writing.

Aside from humans, there is also violence from animals, insects, bacteria and viruses. Humans can protect themselves to a great extent from bacteria and viruses through cleanliness and hygiene but if they begin to pour their shit as well the shit (waste) of industry into their environment, rivers and water bodies as they are doing in many countries right now they shall suffer from diseases, ill health and a high level of infant mortality.

Similarly, filling the air with machine farts (emissions of vehicles and power plants), pollutes the air and while this kills many humans, those that survive miss out on good health and vitality that Universe and Mother Earth intended for them. Earth has designed natural mechanisms to take care of cow and human farts but it is unable to deal with those from unnatural sources such as industries and automation.

4. Develop

The requirements as described so far are sufficient for insect and animal life to survive and thrive and even humans if they wish to survive in a manner similar to lower animals. They do so in some primitive parts of the world even today. However through an organized society, humans can get far ahead of lower animals. With their nimble fingers, versatile vocal chords and intelligence, humans are capable of much more. This requires a governance structure for society that is efficient and reasonably free of corruption because corruption is the loot of people under the guise of governance. A system of corruption free and efficient laws, order and justice is a part of the governing structure of society.

Also needed are other things in keeping with the stage of development of human civilization such as education, health services, electricity and water supply, roads and transport, electronic communications and the infrastructure for it. The better a human society gets at these things, the more developed it becomes. A measure of efficiency is order in space and time and the level of it can be assessed very quickly in any country by seeing the condition of traffic on its urban roads and punctuality or lack of it in its various activities

5. Evolve

Once a society has developed and met the first four requirements as described here to a reasonable extent, it may achieve peace and prosperity. However this does not guarantee evolution and attainment of higher values such as happiness, beauty and bliss. It is because of this that even some of the most developed societies on the planet are also full of most stress.

What is required is not just moral and ethical behavior charged with love and truth but also attempts at self/spiritual development through techniques such as yoga, meditation, focus, service, communing with nature, universe etc if humans are to evolve and attain happiness. A companion blog by this author has several simple and interesting articles in small bytes on this last requirement of evolving humans. It can be found at the following link

"When humanity measures wealth by love, truth and wisdom, we shall all be happy"

October 29, 2015

How Comets carry seeds of life across space

Earlier posts in this blog have postulated that life does not exist just on earth but is rather widespread across the universe albeit in planets too far from each other to make contact, it further postulated that life spreads across space through comets as bacteria and viruses, the only form of life that may survive as frozen life in the long journey from one planet to another and that comets may be formed as fragments of life bearing planets.

Once such bacteria arrive on a planet that has sunlight, temperatures in the appropriate range and gravity enough to hold an atmosphere etc. for life to exist, then life begins to unfold slowly on the planet over billions of years. True such planets would be rare but seeing that the universe is a virtual infinity of stars they are likely to be many. The earlier articles were written more than eight years ago and can be found as early posts in this blog. Just check out the archives in the left sidebar. Since then new discoveries have substantiated this theory and none has gone against it. The most recent is discoveries of the Rosetta mission. It has found oxygen, water and carbon on the comet, all indicating that this is a fragment of a planet that had life on it.


August 14, 2015

How The Ice Age gave birth to Human Civilization

Everyone knows of annual variations that take place as the Earth orbits around the Sun. However there are other much longer duration variations that also take place. As the Earth spins around its axis and orbits around the Sun, several other periodic variations occur. Milankovitch, a Russian Scientist, studied some of these changes in Earth's movements and described what are known as Milkanovitch Cycles. Such changes in movement and orientation alter the amount and location of solar radiation reaching the Earth and are a cause of various ice ages and variations within the ice ages that the planet has witnessed in the past. There are other factors that also contribute to the occurrence of such major climatic changes.

There have been at least five ice ages in the past and presently we live in a relatively warm portion of an ice age that is currently on. That is why the polar ice sheets still exist. Some say that this will end after 50,000 years while a recent research study says it shall be as soon as 2030.  Because these changes are a result of cycles, they do not take place suddenly but rather slowly as the seasons change, but in this case over centuries rather than days. If the latest theory backed by impressive scientific evidence (see here), about the end of inter glacial is true then a slow cooling period will begin on the planet in 2030.

The current Ice Age started around two and a half million years ago. it is only in the relatively recent portion of this ice age that animals like apes evolved into humans and began to spread across the world.  Since the ice age began, the world has seen cycles of glaciations with ice sheets advancing and retreating on 40,000 to 100,000 year time scales called glacial periods (cold). The earth is currently in an interglacial (warm period) after the last glacial period ended about 11000 years ago. All that remains of the continental ice sheets are now confined to Polar Regions because of this temporary warming.

A northward movement, as far north as Turkey may have begun soon after the end of the glacial period as ancient archeological discoveries reveal. For example see,

During the cold periods, sea levels fall and coastal regions are exposed while most regions around the north and south freeze up. Regions around the equators remain green and habitable. Any life on the planet that can gradually move over to these equatorial regions survives the freezing cold by escaping from regions where life becomes nearly impossible as in the arctic regions now.

It seems that many humans and animals from Europe and Central Asia would have moved first to warmer South Asia and then gradually to the southern tips of  South Asia as the cold advanced, simply because that is a region closest to the equator in the old world of Asia and Europe connected with the continents by land. At that time, far more land area was exposed than now because the sea levels had fallen. During the glacial period crossing the Himalayas would have been impossible by migrants because of ice sheets covering the passes. However, coastal routes would have become easier and wider with the sea receding and it is these routes the early migrants and even animals are likely to have followed.

An estimate of the most habitable parts of the world during glacial portions of the ice age

It seems the language spoken by such migrating humans to South Asia would have been early forms of  Indo-European languages and the complexion of these humans fair. In southern India these Indo-European humans would have encountered a darker human Australoid race that was already settled there as has been established by modern DNA mapping and out of Africa theories. These persons would have spoken early forms of Australoid languages that towards the end of the glacial period seems to have evolved into early forms of what are known as Dravidian languages with ancient Tamil being the most prominent of them.

The intermixture of races and cultures that took place seems to have led to the emergence of earliest organized human civilization towards the end of the last glacial period in these southern coastal regions around 10,000 to 11000 years ago. The prominent racial quality appears to have been Australoid and the language an early form of Tamil although mixtures with fairer Indo European races and languages would have existed within it. This mixture continues up to present times.

As the interglacial period began and sea level began to rise, coastal regions began to get submerged once more. Ancient Tamil records have stories of this successive submergence of southern coastal cities. Simultaneously ice sheets began to melt in the North and thus began a movement of people northwards again. The most civilized of these early Tamil people, when they reached northern regions of Indus Valley, Elam and Sumer became the rulers, at first over people who spoke a different language and were fairer. In Indus valley they were the Indo European people who arrived there earlier speaking early forms of Sanskrit. In Sumer it was the Akkadians. It has now been shown that Sumerian and Elam languages were early versions of the Australoid Tamil and the rulers a dark race. Similarly in early mythological stories of Indus region, the rulers and godly kings such as Krishna and Rama are dark personalities while the population is fair in the majority. Over time Majority rule prevailed again in Sumer and Indus Valley as is natural and local languages and races reasserted as in the present with early forms of Tamil disappearing from these parts (except for a few isolated pockets such as one in Balochistan). Tamil has continued and developed in its original southern homeland until present times.

While this northward and westward movement of civilization took place another movement took place towards the east in a movement that lasted until relatively recent times, as late as around a thousand years ago, and the Angkor Wats of South East Asia are a culmination of the creation of ancient civilization there and a glimpse of these early humans who spread the seeds of civilization as we know of now on the planet.

This appears to be in brief the story of birth of human civilization in the past. The Egyptian civilization sprang from an off shoot of the Sumerians. More detailed descriptions with specific details of this story are in earlier articles in this blog.

Some may wonder what will happen when the ice age we are in ends? Would most of the planet become too warm for comfort? What would happen to human civilization then? Well if we are still around by then we shall simply move to the Arctic and Antarctica that shall become nice and green at that time.

A record breaking heat wave exposes the roof of a home in New York in glacial July 2130. 97% of scientists say it is a result of global warming caused by human activity :) 

Image source:,_NY_%28Parker_Blvd_between_Brompton_Rd_and_Ellicott_Creek_Rd%29.jpg

August 01, 2015

New Evidence form Rosetta Mission Supports Pansemeria Hypothesis

Discovering signs of life on a comet

How life came to Earth

Some of the earliest posts of this blog dating back to 2006 suggested that seeds of life were brought to earth by comets. The theory can be reached quickly by clicking archive links in the side bar. The theory named Pansmeria, an adaptation and detailing of the Panspermia hypothesis, then went on to develop a model of how life emerged on Earth and how it may emerge similarly on other habitable planets of the universe where temperature is in the range to permit presence of liquid water, sunshine conducive for photosynthesis and gravity sufficient for holding an atmosphere. Some of the precise details of the theory may need slight revision but this blogger stands by the overall picture as originally presented. Every new evidence that has emerged from science since has supported it.

Now new evidence from the Rosetta mission support the founding principle of the hypothesis of eight years ago, that comets can bring life to Earth. See this report from CNN,

To quote from this report,
The European Space Agency (ESA), which is leading a consortium that includes NASA, announced that the mission to explore Comet 67P has discovered 16 organic compounds, described as "carbon and nitrogen-rich."
The agency says on its website that the discovery, made by the Philae lander includes four compounds that have never before been detected in comets.And it adds that some of the compounds "play a key role in the prebiotic synthesis of amino acids, sugars ... the ingredients for life."
"For example, formaldehyde is implicated in the formation of ribose, which, ultimately features in molecules like DNA. "The existence of such complex molecules in a comet, a relic of the early Solar System, imply that chemical processes at work during that time could have played a key role in fostering the formation of prebiotic material," it says.

However it seems that the scientists are still off key on the precise mechanisms as evident from the following comment in the same report,
Commenting on the findings, lander system engineer Laurence O'Rourke told CNN it was an important discovery. "If you apply energy to such organic compounds ... like a comet hitting a planet ... it could lead to the creation of amino acids which make up proteins, which are the basis of life itself," he said.
The more precise mechanisms are explained in this blog in the indicated early posts that can all be found at the following archive link:

Just take care that the posts are presented in reverse chronological order on this page.

Image developed from a NASA image at: