October 29, 2015

How Comets carry seeds of life across space

Earlier posts in this blog have postulated that life does not exist just on earth but is rather widespread across the universe albeit in planets too far from each other to make contact, it further postulated that life spreads across space through comets as bacteria and viruses, the only form of life that may survive as frozen life in the long journey from one planet to another and that comets may be formed as fragments of life bearing planets.

Once such bacteria arrive on a planet that has sunlight, temperatures in the appropriate range and gravity enough to hold an atmosphere etc. for life to exist, then life begins to unfold slowly on the planet over billions of years. True such planets would be rare but seeing that the universe is a virtual infinity of stars they are likely to be many. The earlier articles were written more than eight years ago and can be found as early posts in this blog. Just check out the archives in the left sidebar. Since then new discoveries have substantiated this theory and none has gone against it. The most recent is discoveries of the Rosetta mission. It has found oxygen, water and carbon on the comet, all indicating that this is a fragment of a planet that had life on it.


August 14, 2015

How The Ice Age gave birth to Human Civilization

Everyone knows of annual variations that take place as the Earth orbits around the Sun. However there are other much longer duration variations that also take place. As the Earth spins around its axis and orbits around the Sun, several other periodic variations occur. Milankovitch, a Russian Scientist, studied some of these changes in Earth's movements and described what are known as Milkanovitch Cycles. Such changes in movement and orientation alter the amount and location of solar radiation reaching the Earth and are a cause of various ice ages and variations within the ice ages that the planet has witnessed in the past. There are other factors that also contribute to the occurrence of such major climatic changes.

There have been at least five ice ages in the past and presently we live in a relatively warm portion of an ice age that is currently on. That is why the polar ice sheets still exist. Some say that this will end after 50,000 years while a recent research study says it shall be as soon as 2030.  Because these changes are a result of cycles, they do not take place suddenly but rather slowly as the seasons change, but in this case over centuries rather than days. If the latest theory backed by impressive scientific evidence (see here), about the end of inter glacial is true then a slow cooling period will begin on the planet in 2030.

The current Ice Age started around two and a half million years ago. it is only in the relatively recent portion of this ice age that animals like apes evolved into humans and began to spread across the world.  Since the ice age began, the world has seen cycles of glaciations with ice sheets advancing and retreating on 40,000 to 100,000 year time scales called glacial periods (cold). The earth is currently in an interglacial (warm period) after the last glacial period ended about 11000 years ago. All that remains of the continental ice sheets are now confined to Polar Regions because of this temporary warming.

A northward movement, as far north as Turkey may have begun soon after the end of the glacial period as ancient archeological discoveries reveal. For example see,

During the cold periods, sea levels fall and coastal regions are exposed while most regions around the north and south freeze up. Regions around the equators remain green and habitable. Any life on the planet that can gradually move over to these equatorial regions survives the freezing cold by escaping from regions where life becomes nearly impossible as in the arctic regions now.

It seems that many humans and animals from Europe and Central Asia would have moved first to warmer South Asia and then gradually to the southern tips of  South Asia as the cold advanced, simply because that is a region closest to the equator in the old world of Asia and Europe connected with the continents by land. At that time, far more land area was exposed than now because the sea levels had fallen. During the glacial period crossing the Himalayas would have been impossible by migrants because of ice sheets covering the passes. However, coastal routes would have become easier and wider with the sea receding and it is these routes the early migrants and even animals are likely to have followed.

An estimate of the most habitable parts of the world during glacial portions of the ice age

It seems the language spoken by such migrating humans to South Asia would have been early forms of  Indo-European languages and the complexion of these humans fair. In southern India these Indo-European humans would have encountered a darker human Australoid race that was already settled there as has been established by modern DNA mapping and out of Africa theories. These persons would have spoken early forms of Australoid languages that towards the end of the glacial period seems to have evolved into early forms of what are known as Dravidian languages with ancient Tamil being the most prominent of them.

The intermixture of races and cultures that took place seems to have led to the emergence of earliest organized human civilization towards the end of the last glacial period in these southern coastal regions around 10,000 to 11000 years ago. The prominent racial quality appears to have been Australoid and the language an early form of Tamil although mixtures with fairer Indo European races and languages would have existed within it. This mixture continues up to present times.

As the interglacial period began and sea level began to rise, coastal regions began to get submerged once more. Ancient Tamil records have stories of this successive submergence of southern coastal cities. Simultaneously ice sheets began to melt in the North and thus began a movement of people northwards again. The most civilized of these early Tamil people, when they reached northern regions of Indus Valley, Elam and Sumer became the rulers, at first over people who spoke a different language and were fairer. In Indus valley they were the Indo European people who arrived there earlier speaking early forms of Sanskrit. In Sumer it was the Akkadians. It has now been shown that Sumerian and Elam languages were early versions of the Australoid Tamil and the rulers a dark race. Similarly in early mythological stories of Indus region, the rulers and godly kings such as Krishna and Rama are dark personalities while the population is fair in the majority. Over time Majority rule prevailed again in Sumer and Indus Valley as is natural and local languages and races reasserted as in the present with early forms of Tamil disappearing from these parts (except for a few isolated pockets such as one in Balochistan). Tamil has continued and developed in its original southern homeland until present times.

While this northward and westward movement of civilization took place another movement took place towards the east in a movement that lasted until relatively recent times, as late as around a thousand years ago, and the Angkor Wats of South East Asia are a culmination of the creation of ancient civilization there and a glimpse of these early humans who spread the seeds of civilization as we know of now on the planet.

This appears to be in brief the story of birth of human civilization in the past. The Egyptian civilization sprang from an off shoot of the Sumerians. More detailed descriptions with specific details of this story are in earlier articles in this blog.

Some may wonder what will happen when the ice age we are in ends? Would most of the planet become too warm for comfort? What would happen to human civilization then? Well if we are still around by then we shall simply move to the Arctic and Antarctica that shall become nice and green at that time.

A record breaking heat wave exposes the roof of a home in New York in glacial July 2130. 97% of scientists say it is a result of global warming caused by human activity :) 

Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:30_Jan_1977_Tonawanda,_NY_%28Parker_Blvd_between_Brompton_Rd_and_Ellicott_Creek_Rd%29.jpg

August 01, 2015

New Evidence form Rosetta Mission Supports Pansemeria Hypothesis

Discovering signs of life on a comet

How life came to Earth

Some of the earliest posts of this blog dating back to 2006 suggested that seeds of life were brought to earth by comets. The theory can be reached quickly by clicking archive links in the side bar. The theory named Pansmeria, an adaptation and detailing of the Panspermia hypothesis, then went on to develop a model of how life emerged on Earth and how it may emerge similarly on other habitable planets of the universe where temperature is in the range to permit presence of liquid water, sunshine conducive for photosynthesis and gravity sufficient for holding an atmosphere. Some of the precise details of the theory may need slight revision but this blogger stands by the overall picture as originally presented. Every new evidence that has emerged from science since has supported it.

Now new evidence from the Rosetta mission support the founding principle of the hypothesis of eight years ago, that comets can bring life to Earth. See this report from CNN,

To quote from this report,
The European Space Agency (ESA), which is leading a consortium that includes NASA, announced that the mission to explore Comet 67P has discovered 16 organic compounds, described as "carbon and nitrogen-rich."
The agency says on its website that the discovery, made by the Philae lander includes four compounds that have never before been detected in comets.And it adds that some of the compounds "play a key role in the prebiotic synthesis of amino acids, sugars ... the ingredients for life."
"For example, formaldehyde is implicated in the formation of ribose, which, ultimately features in molecules like DNA. "The existence of such complex molecules in a comet, a relic of the early Solar System, imply that chemical processes at work during that time could have played a key role in fostering the formation of prebiotic material," it says.

However it seems that the scientists are still off key on the precise mechanisms as evident from the following comment in the same report,
Commenting on the findings, lander system engineer Laurence O'Rourke told CNN it was an important discovery. "If you apply energy to such organic compounds ... like a comet hitting a planet ... it could lead to the creation of amino acids which make up proteins, which are the basis of life itself," he said.
The more precise mechanisms are explained in this blog in the indicated early posts that can all be found at the following archive link:

Just take care that the posts are presented in reverse chronological order on this page.

Image developed from a NASA image at:

April 16, 2015

New Studies push back dates of ancient human civilization

Ancient civilization along the Indus and Saraswati Rivers

With new archeological finds the dates of ancient human civilization are being pushed back,

“Asia's largest and oldest metropolis with gateways, built-up areas, street system and wells was built at the site of Haryana's two villages, including one on the Ghaggar river, according to a new Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) report. The report, based on C 14 radio-dating, has said the mounds at Bhirrana village, on the banks of Ghaggar River, in Fatehabad district date back to 7570-6200 BC.”

The 356-page research on Rakhigarhi has been authored by former ASI's archaeology director Dr Amarendra Nath, the holistic study on Bhirrana has been compiled by ASI's former joint director general K N Dikshit and addtional diector general B R Mani.

However, as speculated in some earlier posts yet more ancient remains may now be submerged in coastal regions of Southern India and these sites may be a result of a return to the northern plains with a language similar to archaic Tamil after the end of the ice age and submergence of southern cities. 

Seeing the antiquity of this civilzation, it seems that it is from here that the civilisation would have moved to ancient Elam, Sumer and later the Nile valley. The distance between the two civilaztions is not considerable. The distance betwwen Sumer and the eastern settlements of Indus valley is less than that between the eastern and western ends within Indus valley itself. Since it is established with reasonable certainty now that the language of Sumer ruling classes was Archaic Tamil and the people dark australoid people, it would seem that the language of the ruling classes in Indus valley could have been a form of Archaic Tamil too. However just as the local Akkadian language was spoken by the masses in Sumer, the language of the masses in Indus valley is likely to have been an Indo-European language. In time the language of the masses prevailed in both Sumer and Indus valley, leaving Tamil to develop at its place of origin in southern India and a few isolated pockets in North such as the one in Baluchistan..

It may be noted that the most prominent of these sites are along the ancient Saraswati River and only then the Indus River however the civilisation is often referred to as Indus Valley civilization because those sites were discovered first.. Part of the Saraswati River now flows as the much reduced Ghaggar River because its connection to the Himalayas between the present day Sutlej and Yamuna rivers has been lost. Some of the Ghaggar river now flows into Pakistan as it must have in ancient times too if one traces archeological sites. However if it was considered reviving it in India some of it may now be aligned with the recent Indira Gandhi canal after reconnecting it to the Himalayas.

February 01, 2015

On the Tamil origin of Ancient human civilisations

Plato by Raphael

The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was a period in the climate history when ice sheets were at their most recent maximum extension, between 27000 and 19,000 years ago. It  was a time when humans survived by moving to warmer southern areas. One such was what is now a submerged area south of south India and along some of the coasts of southern India that existed because of a dramatic drop in sea levels around the time.

It is here that refugees from the north would have encountered existing early humans of the early Australoid races that had arrived and settled there much earlier, as per modern out of Africa genetic indication, and although this is speculative the earliest of human civilizations may have developed in this area arising from the force of the cultural mix of two different races and cultures. The people that emerged from the mix would have borne predominantly Australoid features and spoken ancient forms of archaic Tamil because despite the refugee influx the majority would have been an Australoid race and archaic Tamil has its roots in ancient Austric langauages as discussed in older posts of this blog.. There are ancient Tamil records that describe ancient Tamil civilizations as old or older than  10,000 BC

The Late Glacial Maximum,  13,000-10,000 years ago is defined primarily by the beginning of the modern warm period, in which the earth warmed substantially. It is at this time that human populations, previously forced into refuge areas as a result of Last Glacial Maximum climatic conditions, are likely to have gradually moved northwards as earlier cities and settlements began to submerge due to rising sea levels, and the northern climate was no longer hostile.

During the last ice age sea level was at least 120 m lower than it is today exposing much more area on the continents. Many changes took place as sea level rose including the submergence of coastal regions. An interval of rapid sea level rise was first identified by a hiatus in coral growth in the Caribbean about 7600 years ago. Southampton researchers have estimated that sea-level rose by an average of about 1 meter per century at the end of the last Ice Age, interrupted by rapid 'jumps' during which it rose by up to 2.5 meters per century. Global sea level rose by a total of more than 120 meters as the vast ice sheets of the last Ice Age melted back. This melt-back lasted from about 19,000 to about 6,000 years ago, meaning that the average rate of sea-level rise was roughly 1 meter per century.

Ancient Tamil records do mention the submergence of an ancient advanced Tamil civilization prior to 5500 BP. 
The Tamil people presently inhabit southern India and it is possible that in the past they may have inhabited the region up to the southern limits of the Indus civilization in the south along the Indian Ocean coast i.e. present day Dwarka, the mouth of the Saraswati River and westwards towards the mouth of Indus valley.

To quote from a recent article on the subject (http://www.tamilguardian.com/article.asp?articleid=256  )                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
The evidence thus far reveals the existence of man-made structures twenty-three metres beneath the sea, five kilometres off the Tarangambadi- Poompuhar coast near Nagapattinam in South India. Its existence at such a depth is calculated as having taken place over many thousand years ago. This ties in with the geological evidence of such happenings at that time as well as the Tamil traditions of the first two Tamil Sangams referred to earlier.

The unfolding archaeological and geological evidence is proving to be the historical validation that Tamil civilisation which reached a high-point during those two Tamil Sangams had their beginnings 11,000 years ago or circa 9,000 BC. What is the evidence currently available, be it archaeological, geological or other which will substantiate the Kumari Kandam tradition? 

 According to N. Parameswaran, quoting from ancient Tamil literary tradition, 

According to the Kumari Kandam tradition, over a period of about just 11,000 years (beginning around 9000BC), the Pandyans, a historical dynasty of Tamil kings, formed three Tamil Sangams, in order to foster among their subjects the love of knowledge, literature and poetry.

The first Sangam was head-quartered in a city named Then-madurai it was patronised by a succession of eighty-nine kings and survived for an unbroken period of 4,400 years during which time it approved an immense collection of poems and literature. At the end of that golden age, the First Sangam was destroyed when a deluge arose and Then-Madurai itself was swallowed by the sea along with large parts of the land area of Kumari Kandam.

However, the survivors, saving some of the books, were able to relocate further north. They established a Second Sangam in a city called Kavatapuram which lasted 3,700 years. The same fate befell this city as well, when it too was swallowed by the sea and lost forever all its works with the sole exception of the Tolkappiyam, a work on Tamil grammar. Following the inundation of Kavatapuram, the survivors once again relocated The Third Sangam lasted for a period of 1850 years and most scholars agree that that Sangam terminated around 350 AD.  As observed by Prof. (Dr) M. Sunderam, “The tradition of the loss of a vast continent by deluge of the sea is too strong in the ancient Tamil classics to be ignored by any serious type of inquiry.”

It is interesting to note that gradual submergence of cities is in agreement with gradual rise of sea levels that lasted up to around six thousand years ago as per the South Hampton study.. Tamils from the south appear to have migrated north to the southern tip of what later became the Indus valley and Saraswati valley civilizations. Their grand coastal cities were later eroded as the sea rose. These people who settled coastal regions over the years were responsible for the creation of an ancient civilization that preceded both the Indus valley and Sumerian civilizations.

Ruins have been found somewhat a little to the south off the Konkan coast.  In what could turn out to be a major discovery; researchers have found a wall-like structure, which is 24km long, 2.7m in height, and around 2.5m in width. The structure shows uniformity in construction. “The structure is not continuous from Shrivardhan to Raigad, but it is uniform. It has been found 3m below the present sea level. Considering the uniformity of the structure, it is obvious that the structure is man-made,” said Dr Ashok Marathe, department of archaeology, Deccan College Postgraduate and Research Institute, Pune.  

This joint expedition carried out by Deccan College, Pune and Department of Science and Technology, Central Government, has been in progress since 2005. “We were actually studying the impacts of tsunami and earthquake on western coast when we first found this structure in Valneshwar,” said Marathe. However, the age of the structure was decided on the basis of sea level mapping. “There have been exhaustive studies about the sea water coming inside the land. Based on calculations, experts from National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) pegged the age of the wall at around 6,000 BC,” Marathe informed.

An Archaic Tamil origin of Indus, Elam and Sumer

If it is assumed that an advanced civilization existed prior to Indus, Elamite and Sumerian civilizations and that due to submergence groups from this civilization migrated northwards from South Asia and dominated the local less civilized population in an analogous manner to what Europeans did when they colonized much of the world a few centuries ago, then it would explain the emergence of civilization in these regions. Plato has described such a scenario in his records of Atlantis, a civilization that preceded the Sumerians and was submerged in a place with plantain trees and elephants.

 Initially an Archaic Tamil language of the ruling classes would have been the official language while the language of the local people would have been in common use as happened during European colonization. This is in fact proved by written records as far as Sumer is concerned where eventually the Akkadian language of the majority replaced Archaic Tamil. Similarly it has also been deduced that the language of ancient Elam was a form of archaic Tamil language ( see older posts in this blog for references). It is likely that the scenario was similar in Indus valley. Here the language of the majority was an Indo-European language that preceded Sanskrit and here too the archaic Tamil was likely lost with the decline of the Indus civilization due to the drying up of the Saraswati River.

It is interesting to note that in ancient Sanskrit stories the rulers are often shown as dark persons where the majority was a fairer Indo-European population. This includes leading Kings in mythology such as Krishna and Rama. The situation was precisely similar in Sumeria. it is also interesting to note that this agrees with the story and timing of ancient Atlantis as described by Plato. History too would seem to have come a full circle with a dominance of darker populations by fairer Europeans in the colonial period balancing the karma of the original fair races dominated by darker ones. A few very fair Tamil families continue to exist in southern India while some very dark ones exist till this day in northern India. The early racial mixes of thousands of years ago appear to continue up to present times.

A Classical depiction from the ancient story of Krishna and Sudama. For a modern rendition of the story by the author see http://someitemshave.blogspot.in/2014/12/merry-christmas-story-of-sudama-and-king.html

It is worth noting that different branches and tribes of the Austric races e.g. the Bhils and the Gonds remained undeveloped in forest areas of central and eastern India untouched by civilization until recent times. These were most likely the Austric people who escaped the force of a cultural mix that created the first of human civilization in the warmest southern tips of South Asia leading to the development of advanced Tamil civilization and races. Unlike the Tamil people who display a mix of dark and fairer castes along with a considerable influence of Sanskrit of Indo-European group in the language. On the other hand the tribal Austrics in other parts are primarily still dark in complexion.

NOTE: Read about some fascinating ancient archeological discoveries here:

January 04, 2015

Comets are not Vagabonds

Comet Lovejoy image from NASA (modified before use here)

Those who believe in a supreme Universal Intelligence believe that nothing major happens in the universe unless the Universe wills it. While scientists recognize the supreme organization in planets, stars and galaxies, some regard comets as wayward objects. However, there are others who see this as a necessity of the overall design. An earlier post (see here) in this blog described how comets may be regarded as the spaceships of God. Their icy interiors can bring genes of life stored in bacteria, the only form of life that survives hibernation over millions of years, acting as the seeds of life on new planets, where they awaken with the scent of moisture and a conducive climate. The genes of all life forms including humans are carried in bacterial genes. There is much more of that in earlier posts of this blog. Presently the earth is witnessing the spectacular comet Lovejoy in its vicinity.

Without comets, perhaps there would have been no life on earth. It is also true that some comets bring destruction to a planet. Without some earlier ones that destroyed the dinosaurs perhaps human life would not have emerged. Some predict some more such destructive collisions in future and there might be a purpose behind it too that is not fully comprehensible to the finite mind of humans.Regarding some speculated destructions in the near future see: